Please see Law about domestic violence (209A) for information about abuse prevention orders under c.209A. A brief report to the UN Committee on Gender Legislation in 2010 suggests that this draft law is specific to women and may be related to domestic violence. Cyber stalking statutes usually classify cyber stalking as a misdemeanor offense. Laws against cyberstalking. Although there is no comprehensive, nationwide data on the extent of cyberstalking in the United States, some ISPs compile statistics on the number and types of complaints of harassment and/or threats involving their subscribers, and individual law enforcement agencies have compiled helpful statistics. http://webapps01.un.org/vawdatabase/searchDetail.action?measureId=22936&baseHREF=country&baseHREFId=668. L. 23 aprile 2009, n. 38, âMisure urgenti in materia di sicurezza pubblica e di contrasto alla violenza sessuale, nonche’ in tema di atti persecutori”, http://stalking.medlegmo.unimo.it/legislazione click on decreto 23febbraio 2009, 2011 (in Italian), Courtesy Ms Chiara Sgarbi, UniversitÃ di Modena e Reggio Emilia. I keep recieveing an email and I know it's bogus! The concept of jurisdiction pertains to which agency or court has the authority to administer justice in a particular matter, and to the scope of those agencies' and courts' authority. The Tajikistan parliament failed to pass a bill prohibiting domestic violence (including stalking in the context of domestic relationships) in October 2010 and it had still not been passed by the end of 2011. All states have anti-stalking laws, but the legal definitions vary. Note that stalking has also been referred to as âeve teasingâ in Bangladesh. A link to the specific legislation is required (please contact us if you know of one). If you know of anti-stalking legislation that is not listed on this page, ... Cyberstalking is specifically prohibited in Pakistan in the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance 2007, s13: Amir Hossein Kordvani presented a paper discussing stalking behaviour in Iran in 2000, which includes some discussion of legal and policing responses. Comprehensive discussions of the characteristics and status of European stalking laws are provided in the 2007 Modena Group on Stalking report: Protecting women from the new crime of stalking: A comparison of legislative approaches within the European Union and the associated Manual for victims and helping professionals (in multiple languages). Cyber-Stalking is defined as the unlawful act of collecting or amassing an individual’s private information with regards to the internet, a computer, or alternative electronic network. An English-lanuage media account can be found at: http://japandailypress.com/japan-toughens-anti-stalking-laws-includes-repeated-emailing-as-harassment-2731299/. As cyberstalking is a form of emotional assault, laws governing harassment and slander can be applied to electronic communications. harassment/cyber stalking and what demographic characteristics are associated with an increased risk of victimization (Reyns, Henson, & Fisher, 2011), and how the experience of cyber stalking differs from the experiences of traditional forms of stalking behavior (Sheridan & Grant, 2007). If you know the details or an active link, please contact us. Section 10 of this Bill would prohibit unlawful stalking. Cyberstalking started when Internet becomes one of the most important mediums of communication in social networking. View the 2019 New Mexico Statutes | View Previous Versions of the New Mexico Statutes International Computer Crime Laws of 45 Countries, Countries with an “a” are discussing the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) in 2010. ... Law Reporter. Cyberstalking is punishable by up to five years in prison and a fine of $250,000. http://www.laws.gov.bw/VOLUME%204/CHAPTER%2028-05%20DOMESTIC%20VIOLENCE.pdf, http://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-c-46/latest/rsc-1985-c-c-46.htmlÂ (search for ‘criminal harassment’). Courtesy of Ms Namita Malik, ITM University. Offenders can be sentenced to a maximum of one year in prison or a fine. This act also provides a protection order in such cases. However, the Senate subsequently failed to pass this Bill and as at the end of 2011, it had not yet been re-presented. So how does cyberstalking fit within the legal system? B. The Protection from Domestic Violence Bill 2010 was approved by the Legislative Assembly in September 2010. 2.1 Applicable Law: Please cite any Applicable Laws in your jurisdiction applicable to cybersecurity, including laws applicable to the monitoring, detection, prevention, mitigation and management of Incidents.This may include, for example, data protection and e-privacy laws, intellectual property laws, confidentiality laws, information security laws, and import/export controls, among others. Specific laws against cyber stalking in that state or territory. Some Canadian provinces (e.g. If your country is not listed, it is because we could find no reference to stalking in any legislation. The concept of jurisdiction pertains to which agency or court has the authority to administer justice in a particular matter, and to the scope of those agencies' and courts' authority. Computer hacking and the use of advanced spy devices, emission based devices by the predators. Finally, the Convention on Cybercrime will be analysed to see if it can serve a purpose in the combat against international (cyber)stalking (chapter 7). you can make a report to your local police, and see if they can do to help you. 27, s265, https://www.retsinformation.dk/forms/r0710 (in Danish). Stalking is against the law. U.S. Code. 2. A summary and the full HKLRC report can be found at: http://www.hkreform.gov.hk/en/publications/rstalk.htm. This law is derived from s13 of the Crimes (Domestic and Personal Violence) Act 2007.. A person who stalks or intimidates another person with the intention of causing the other person to fear physical or mental harm is guilty of an offence. The wording of the legislation (in German) can be found at:-, http://dipbt.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/16/005/1600575.pdf. Cyberbullying and cyberstalking are relatively new crimes, and the laws dealing with these crimes are still being crafted, drafted, and revised. Details about how stalking may be dealt with are included in the Modena report into stalking in Europe, available at: There is currently no anti-stalking law in France. It may include false accusations, defamation, slander and libel. There is currently no anti-stalking law in Estonia. Protection from Harassment Act 2000. However, there are undoubtedly laws criminalising stalking and harassment that we are unaware of. Laws governing stalking, harassment, and slander, as well as specific “cyberstalking” laws, vary by state, and might include a series of acts that might not be considered illegal under other circumstances. It may involve any number of incidents including threats, libel, defamation, sexual harassment, or other actions in which to control, influence, or intimidate their target. Note that the above link has the old version of the Act with a link to legislation.gov.uk where the amendments can be viewed. Some state laws require that the perpetrator make a credible threat of violence against the victim. Broadband 2020 Legislation. General Civil Penal Code, Chap. This article discusses the federal anti-stalking law. The legislation and its application is discussed in the Modena report available at: There is currently no anti-stalking law in Greece. Van Der Aa, S., & Kunst, M. (2009). Rejected Stalkers: This type of stalker is motivated to pursue their victim in attempt to reverse what they perceive as a wrongful set of circumstances causing a prior divorce, separation or termination of a relationship. Offenders and Victims, 6 (1), 19-37. Sometimes the word harassment is mentioned when defining cyberstalking. These laws permit legal action against anyone using digital technologies to harass others. Â the Cayman Islands Law Reform Commission noted that they would be undertaking research beginning in April 2010 into the need for a specific anti-stalking law. But bullying does overlap with discriminatory harassment if it is based upon race, color, sex, age, religion or disability. There is no law against stalking in Iran. INTRODUCTION The Internet is a powerful … The Protection from Domestic Violence Bill 2010 was approved by the Legislative Assembly in September 2010. Some discussion of relevant legislation in the country is also available in Jagessar & Sheridan (2004) who compared perceptions of stalking in Britain and Trinidad. The law states the actions must be intentional. Naomi Harlin Goodno I. Cyberstalking laws make behaviors such as these illegal. Courtesy of Dr Dagmara WoÅºniakowska-Fajst, Warsaw University. US. If you are not sure what type of order applies to your situation, see Find out if you're eligible for an abuse prevention order. However, the Hong Kong Law Reform Commission undertook a consultation and published a final report recommending changes to existing legislation in 2000. In many cases, however, these laws have not kept pace with the quickly evolving world of the internet. Most cyber stalking behaviors are premeditated, repetitious, and can be quite aggressive in their approach, but border on being illegal under current statutory law in most states (Hutton & Haantz 2003). www.lac.org.na/projects/grap/Pdf/mono3stalking.pdf. You should always report to your local law enforcement agency and the law enforcement agency of the cyberstalker if you know who the person is. This is the Convention on Cybercrime, signed by the Council of Europe in Budapest on November 23, 2001. practically there is no an International OFFICIAL LAWS Against a cyber stalking. There is currently no anti-stalking law in Latvia. 4.2.2 Tackle Jurisdictional Issue on Cyber Stalking Cyberstalkers may attack possible victims across jurisdictional lines. Poland introduced a stalking law on 6th June 2011. A 2006 article discussing the Swiss approach to stalking laws is available from: www.mdcs.ch/fileadmin/mdcs.ch/pdf/Publikationen/Stalking.pdf (in German). Laws governing stalking, harassment, and slander, as well as specific “cyberstalking” laws, vary by state, and might include a series of acts that might not be considered illegal under other circumstances. Each country fights with cyber crime , own ways. For information about state anti-stalking laws, see Defending Against an Accusation of Stalking . The original domestic violence legislation including a Pakistani definition of stalking can be found at: www.na.gov.pk/passed_bill/domestic_violence2009.pdf. Cyberstalking has no specific statutory definition. Criminal Code s107a Beharrliche Verfolgung (persistent pursuit) and Schutz vor Eingriffen in die PrivatsphÃ¤re Â§ 382g EO (Protection against invasion of privacy. What must exist for cyber stalking to be illegal in a state or territory? Countries with a “c” belong to the Council of Europe. However, the Legal Assistance Centre in Windhoek has produced a document outlining other laws that may be relevant to stalking in that country. A more recent review is available in Van Der Aa and RÃ¶mken’s 2013 discussion of the state of the art of stalking legislation in Europe. Cyberstalking Legislation. Protection from Domestic Violence Bill 2010. If you know of a more up to date version of the Code in Norwegian, we would appreciate you contacting us with a link. 875(c) makes it a federal crime to transmit any interstate or foreign commerce containing a threat that is … A discussion of stalking and relevant laws in Sweden that pre-dates the new legislation is available from: http://www.bra.se/extra/measurepoint/?module_instance=4&name=Stalkingengslutred.pdf&url=/dynamaster/file_archive…(in English). Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet, email, text messaging, or other electronic communications to follow someone in a threatening manner, and generally refers to using information obtained from those electronic investigations in a malicious or threatening manner. Many states have enacted laws outlawing cyberstalking and cyber harassment. These offenders either feel misunderstood hoping to reverse the break up or feel angry and seeking revenge because their attempts at reconciliation with the victim has failed in the past.II. In the wake of a 2010 High Court direction for the government to develop a policy better to manage the problem of the stalking of women, the government modified the âMobile Court Act 2009â in November 2010 to allow men who stalk women to be tried summarily. The Swaziland government has been debating the Sexual Offences and Domestic Violence Bill throughout 2010 and it had not been enacted by the end of 2011. This list represents the best of our knowledge to date (last comprehensively updated January 2014). Stalking is a form of emotional assault, and cyberstalking, also referred to as “cyberbullying,” is a high-tech method of inflicting more pain.The Violence Against Women Act of 2000 placed cyberstalking under the prevue of federal law in the U.S. Penalties for cyberstalking vary by jurisdiction and by the circumstances of the case, but they may include misdemeanor or felony charges depending on the types of threats made or actual harm caused. It includes cyberstalking provisions. Cyberstalking is specifically prohibited in Pakistan in the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance 2007, s13: www.fia.gov.pk/electronic_prevention_orde.pdf. Leuven, http://www.bermudalaws.bm/site_docs/laws.aspx?RootFolder=/Laws/Consolidated Laws&sel=SÂ (lists Acts in alphabetical order, scroll down to ‘stalking’). Under this law it is a federal felony to cross state lines to stalk or harass an individual if the conduct causes fear of serious bodily injury or death to the stalking victim or to the victim's immediate family members. There were attempts to establish specific anti-stalking legislation in 2007 and 2008, but both failed. Details about how stalking may be dealt with are included in the Modena report into stalking in Europe, available at: Protection from Harassment (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 2005. Jurisdiction can be based on a number of different things:Because these systems are separate, a person can be charged, tried and acquitted under state law, for example, and then charged, tried and convicted under federal law for the same act, without incurring double jeopardy. Countries with a “h” belong to the Hague Conference. At present we do not have a link to this legislation, although some basic information is available from the UN database on violence against women link below. Straffeloven (Criminal Code), Chap. § 2261A). Cyberstalking includes the use of the Internet, e-mail, or other electronic communications devices to talk another person through harassing or threatening behavior. 39, s390a. A. Law on Protection from Domestic Violence 2005, Article 14 Prohibition of harassment or stalking. Relates only to âfamily membersâ. Some discussion of the law and of stalking in The Netherlands can be found in the article: Van Der Aa, S., & Kunst, M. (2009). However, the UN has expressed serious concerns about whether this law is being implemented in an effective way. International law emphasizes a supranational concept related to cybercrime. According to media reports, at the time of this writing, twenty-four states have both online harassment laws and cyber-stalking laws; ten states only have cyber-stalking laws and thirteen states only have Internet harassment laws.. Online Harassment Law: California Penal Code 646.9. Domestic Violence Act 2008. However, this practice is often problematic because confrontations in cyberspace are different from real-life situations. Legal definitions of stalking and cyberstalking vary by state and country. 18 U.S. Code § 2261A. As of 2005, 44 states have enacted cyber stalking laws within existing stalking or harassment laws (National Conference of State Legislatures 2006). I. However, there are undoubtedly laws criminalising stalking and harassment that we are unaware of. The Maltese Code is available in pdf from: http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes. The future of the legislation is unclear given that the bill was drafted in 2003 and has been in committees since that time. Criminal Code, 442bis. Text of the Act can be found at Singapore Statutes Online by searching for ‘Protection from Harassment’. http://www.bailii.org/uk/legis/num_act/1997/ukpga_19970040_en_1.html. Jurisdiction can be based on a number of different things:Because these systems are separate, a person can be charged, tried and acquitted under state law, for example, and then charged, tried and convicted under federal law for the same act, without incurring double jeopardy. A human rights group update on the law in 2010 suggested that Section 10 would be removed from the final law due to the controversy, although it is unclear if this is the case: Sweden introduced an anti-stalking law on 1 October 2011. Details about how stalking may be dealt with are included in the Modena report into stalking in Europe, available at: stalking.medlegmo.unimo.it/RAPPORTO_versione_finale_011007.pdf. Often cyberstalking is seen as a precursor to actual violence in the physical world, therefore it is taken quite seriously by law enforcement. Stalking. An English translation of the relevant sections of the Criminal Code can be found at: http://www.austria.gv.at/site/cob__37006/6845/default.aspx. California enjoys the country’s strictest computer and Internet harassment statutes. Half of all states have also updated their legislation to include similar options. Slander, harassment, and anti-stalking legislation laws govern cyberstalking to some degree. The proceedings of the 2012 WSEAS International Conference on Economics, Political and Law Science includes a paper by Monika Horakova that discusses the law and its application. In many countries, there is no specific anti-stalking law, but laws exist that are relevant to preventing or policing stalking, or there have been discussions in the media or government about the need for specific anti-stalking legislation. According to Reno, Title 18 U.S.C. Please note that some of these discussions are now out of date as some countries have since introduced legislation. The answer to that depends on which country you’re in. Protection from Domestic Violence Bill 2010Â (stalking implicitly included in definition of ‘psychological and emotional abuse’). International Legislation. Details about how stalking may be dealt with are included in the Modena report into stalking in Europe, available at: Germany has had a civil anti-stalking law since 2002, and a criminal law since 2007. Domestic partner stalking was prohibited within domestic violence legislation passed by the National Assembly in August 2009. Based on state and federal laws prohibiting stalking and cyberstalking, as well as definitions of cyberstalking used in prior research, the behaviors comprising cyberstalking victimization were identified. This list represents the best of our knowledge to date (last comprehensively updated January 2014). Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, group, or organization. Cyberbullying is the term used to describe any form of bullying that makes use of technology to deliberately upset or threaten a person. Some information is provided at: http://www.southasianrights.org/?p=2056Â (24 November 2010), and; http://www.southasianrights.org/?p=2316Â (27 January 2011). Dr. Sameer Hinduja was the perfect keynote speaker for Auburn University’s 2016 International Anti-bullying Summit. Therefore, cyberstalking is an act which involves the use of information and communication technology (ICT) i.e., Internet, wireless networks, mobile phones, computers, laptops, e-mails, instant messaging, etc. http://www.ub.uio.no/ujur/ulovdata/lov-19020522-010-eng.pdf, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2010/13/section/39, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2010/13/contents, www.coplaspalmas.org/07biblio/social/social14.pdf, http://www.ugr.es/~sevimeco/revistaeticanet/Numero1/Articulos/NUEVACARADEINTERNET.pdf, http://www.bra.se/extra/measurepoint/?module_instance=4&name=Stalkingengslutred.pdf&url=/dynamaster/file_archive…, http://www.parlament.ch/d/suche/seiten/geschaefte.aspx?gesch_id=20083495, www.mdcs.ch/fileadmin/mdcs.ch/pdf/Publikationen/Stalking.pdf, www.ttparliament.org/legislations/a2005-11.pdf, www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,IRBC,,TTO,49b92b211e,0.html. However, implementation of this law is slow and problematic. The Bill is contentious as outlawing stalking is seen by some to interfere with the traditional custom of âKusomaâ whereby courtship involves a man repeatedly asking a woman to marry him, and going to her home, workplace, or places of recreation to do so. The Domestic Violence (Protection Orders) Act 1997 amended the Sexual Offences and Domestic Violence Act to define and outlaw stalking in the context of a domestic or dependant relationship. In New South Wales it is illegal to stalk another person, even if that stalking is over the internet, or online. This Act was amended in November 2012 after considerable lobbying and consultation about the inadequacies of the original harassment provisions. Please check below in addition to reading the report. This can be downloaded from. This can include the illegal trespass onto a computer terminal or network belonging to the victim. A 2010 Taipei media report on the issue is available here: www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2010/09/11/2003482573. This act deals with harassment and threatening behaviour of various types, and includes a section prohibiting ‘unlawful stalking’. Received 4 August, 2015; Accepted 25 July, 2016 Cybercrime, a concept which to date has defied a globally accepted definition, appears to be the latest scourge plaguing man and same has occupied the cynosure. In their 2010 annual report. It is a federal felony to stalk or harass on military or U.S. territorial lands, including Indian country (18 U.S.C. Federal case law allows schools to discipline students for off-campus behavior that results in a substantial disruption of the learning environment at school. At present we do not have the title or link to the relevant legislation. If you know of anti-stalking legislation that is not listed on this page, or if the information we have is incorrect, please contact us to provide details. A lay person discussion of the amended Act and other issues relevant to prosecution of stalking in England and Wales can be found at: http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/s_to_u/stalking_and_harassment/. A life sentence can be imposed if the cyberstalking … The law exists within a wider section discussing ‘Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty’ and only applies to men stalking women. This page contains the reference for and, where available, a link to the anti-stalking legislation in each jurisdiction where we know relevant legislation exists. Suriname has no anti-stalking law, although at the Regional conference on Women in Latin America in November 2011, the Surinamese delegation reported that a Stalking Bill had been sent to Parliament for enactment. The Swiss Federal Councilâs discussion of why the motion failed is available here: http://www.parlament.ch/d/suche/seiten/geschaefte.aspx?gesch_id=20083495 (in German and French). This act also includes provisions for non-harassment orders. There is no specific anti-stalking law in Switzerland, although there is a Civil Code provision (Article 28b) that is intended to protect against harassment and offers the option of a restraining order. Cyberstalking is a Growing Problem. The article is available from: www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Stalking_Perceptions_and_Experiences_Across_Two_Cultures.pdf, The Domestic Violence Act 2010 specifically prohibits harassment in the context of a current or former domestic relationship. However, the organisation âWomen Against Rapeâ has worked with the US Stalking Awareness Organisation to increase public knowledge about stalking and its effects. Unfortunately, these pieces of legislation do not adequately address all instances of cyberstalking, leaving it to state legislators to enact protective laws. Countries with a “v” have been invited to join NATO. Federal law provides some tools to combat cyberstalking. Despite these efforts, our understanding of cyber harassment An English-language discussion of the criminal justice system response to stalking in Belgium and the Netherlands can be found in: Van der Aa, S., & Green, A. Through Internet or social media, people or … Stalking another person by using the telephone, Internet, or U.S. mail is a felony crime under the criminal law of the United States. While some countries apply older laws, others have enacted specific cyberstalking laws. It may also include monitoring, identity theft, threats, vandalism, solicitation for sex, or gathering information that may be used to threaten, embarrass or harass. Brief details are available from:Â, www.ncvc.org/src/main.aspx?dbID=DB_NSAM2008739#AT, AustraliaAustralian Capital Territory: Crimes Act 1900 s35 Stalking http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/ca190082/s35.html, New South Wales: Crimes (Domestic and Personal Violence) Act 2007 s13 Stalking or intimidation with intent to cause fear of physical or mental harmhttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/capva2007347/s13.html, Northern Territory: Criminal Code s189 Unlawful Stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nt/consol_act/cc94/s189.html, Queensland: Criminal Code 1899 s359A-F Unlawful stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/qld/consol_act/cc189994/s359a.html, South Australia: Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 s19AA Unlawful stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/clca1935262/s19aa.html, Tasmania: Criminal Code Act 1924 Schedule 1 s192 Stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/tas/consol_act/cca1924115/sch1.html, Victoria: Crimes Act 1958 s21A Stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/consol_act/ca195882/s21a.html, Western Australia: Criminal Code Act 1913 s338D-E Stalkinghttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/wa/consol_act/ccaca1913252/notes.html#appendixa. The law on cyberstalking. Some media discussion (in English) in available from:Â, www.thelocal.se/36482/20111002/Â andÂ www.thelocal.se/37638/20111129/. The phenomenon of cyber-stalking and on-line harassment looks set to be the focus of the next Internet-related moral panic. The Prevalence of Stalking in The Netherlands. Countries with an “a” are discussing the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) in 2010. There has nonetheless been some academic interest in stalking. The text of the Act can be found here: www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=156361. The paper can be downloaded from: http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2012/Zlin/EPRI/EPRI-27.pdfÂ. In their 2010 annual report,Â the Cayman Islands Law Reform Commission noted that they would be undertaking research beginning in April 2010 into the need for a specific anti-stalking law. The use of technology to stalk, sometimes called “cyberstalking,” involves using the Internet, email, or other electronic communications to stalk someone. Cyberstalking is a relatively new crime and it continues to evolve alongside ever-advancing technology. (available free online), http://www.nzlii.org/nz/legis/consol_act/ha1997129/, Protection from Harassment Act 1997, s13 Corresponding Provision for Northern Ireland, http://www.bailii.org/uk/legis/num_act/1997/ukpga_19970040_en_1.html#pb3-l1g13. http://www.compasscayman.com/story.aspx?id=27504, http://www.compasscayman.com/caycompass/2010/09/15/Domestic-violence-bill-supported/, http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2012/Zlin/EPRI/EPRI-27.pdf, https://www.retsinformation.dk/forms/r0710, www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,,,GUY,,492ac7c328,0.html, http://stalking.medlegmo.unimo.it/legislazione click on decreto 23febbraio 2009, 2011, http://hourei.hounavi.jp/hourei/H12/H12HO081.php, http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2009/0134/a134.pdf#page=3, http://www.wetboek-online.nl/wet/Wetboek%20van%20Strafrecht/285b.html. Article 3A - Harassment and Stalking Section 30-3A-3 - Stalking; penalties. A brief Spanish review of the stalking literature by psychologist Garcia Averasturi is available at: www.coplaspalmas.org/07biblio/social/social14.pdf (in Spanish). The South African Law Reform Commission report on stalking that pre-dates the new law can be found at: http://www.saflii.org/za/other/zalc/ip/22/22-CHAPTER-2.html. This bill offers protection from stalking to victims of family or domestic violence only. If your country is not listed, it is because we could find no reference to stalking in any legislation. Spain does not have an anti-stalking law and, as in many non-English speaking jurisdictions, there is no single Spanish word that captures the English concept of stalking. Criminal Code, Article 251A Harassment and 251B Causing others to fear violence will be used against them. Prevalence and seriousness of international (cyber)stalking . 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