It is most popular in England for planking. [48], The mucilaginous inner bark of the Slippery Elm Ulmus rubra has long been used as a demulcent, and is still produced commercially for this purpose in the United States with approval for sale as a nutritional supplement by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Elm works well, too, for butcher block tops and cutting boards because it has no odor or taste, and it won't split. [50], As fossil fuel resources diminish, increasing attention is being paid to trees as sources of energy. White-letter Hairstreak Satyrium w-album, on Lutece, Sweden. Elm has been listed as one of the 38 substances that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[53] a kind of alternative medicine. Gum (sweetgum, red gum): This hardwood is often used in veneers or in combination with rare woods; it's also used in some moderately priced furniture. It’ll burn good once you’ve managed to get it split. From the 18th century to the early 20th century, elms, whether species, hybrids or cultivars, were among the most widely planted ornamental trees in both Europe and North America. Oliver Rackham[4] describes Ulmus as the most critical genus in the entire British flora, adding that 'species and varieties are a distinction in the human mind rather than a measured degree of genetic variation'. It's often used for rustic pieces, like farmhouse-style tables. Elm was also used as piers in the construction of the original London Bridge. Elm, genus of about 35 species of forest and ornamental shade trees, native primarily to north temperate areas. Why use elm for these sticks? In North America, the species most commonly planted was the American elm (Ulmus americana), which had unique properties that made it ideal for such use: rapid growth, adaptation to a broad range of climates and soils, strong wood, resistance to wind damage, and vase-like growth habit requiring minimal pruning. 'Bladder' leaf-galls on a narrow-leaved elm (aphid Eriosoma lanuginosum), Italy. Elm Yellows in Europe. When in contact with water, elm resists decay, so many boatbuilders use it for planking. The often long, straight, trunks were favoured as a source of timber for keels in ship construction. Today, most elm lumber goes for manufacturing use and very little finds its way to retail outlets. Breeding Elms for Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease. [citation needed]. In both instances the beetles cause far more damage in North America owing to the absence of the predators present in their native lands. Elm: yumu: Yumu (Ulmus, Northern Elm) is traditionally the most common softwood used in the manufacture of furniture in Northern China. A bottom heat of 18 degrees[92] and humid conditions are maintained for hard- and softwood cuttings. [74], The cutting of the elm was a diplomatic altercation between the Kings of France and England in 1188, during which an elm tree near Gisors in Normandy was felled. OTBS Member. These efforts have largely been successful in saving the majority of the trees, although several are still lost each year. As part of the sub-order urticalean rosids they are distant cousins of cannabis, hops, and nettles. However, the susceptibility of the cultivar 'Lobel', used as a control in Italian trials, to elm yellows has now (2014) raised a question mark over all the Dutch clones. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, evidence suggests that the inner bark of slipper elm trees can provide several medicinal benefits. Also in the Iliad, when the River Scamander, indignant at the sight of so many corpses in his water, overflows and threatens to drown Achilles, the latter grasps a branch of a great elm in an attempt to save himself ("ὁ δὲ πτελέην ἕλε χερσὶν εὐφυέα μεγάλην".[61]. Illustration:Steve Schindler Smalley, E. B. 2,370 11 Joined Jul 17, 2005 . Since the Siberian Elm is drought-tolerant, in dry countries new varieties of elm are often root-grafted on this species. While this elm has little innate resistance to Dutch elm disease, it is not favoured by the vector bark beetles and thus only becomes colonized and infected when there are no other choices, a rare situation in western Europe. It can put out a significant amount of heat, but it can be very difficult to split. [58] In his Hymn to Artemis the poet Callimachus (3rd century BC) tells how, at the age of three, the infant goddess Artemis practised her newly acquired silver bow and arrows, made for her by Hephaestus and the Cyclopes, by shooting first at an elm, then at an oak, before turning her aim on a wild animal: The first reference in literature to elms occurs in the Iliad. Because of those characteristics, elm wood has been used to make ship keels, piers, archery bows, and furniture Despite the well-publicized problems with Dutch elm disease, not all elms are susceptible. [78][79] Elm-planting by American Presidents later became something of a tradition. Soft wood, green wood, and big wood will … From France to Middle America, elm once lined miles of city streets and country byways. If you Google 'elm wood uses' they have some photos of some nice Elm furniture. A part of New York City's urban ecology, the elms improve air and water quality, reduce erosion and flooding, and decrease air temperatures during warm days. The wood has no characteristic odour or taste. Due to Dutch elm disease, it is not uncommon to find standing dead elms everywhere. This tolerance made elms reliable both as shelterbelt trees exposed to sea wind, in particular along the coastlines of southern and western Britain[36][37] and in the Low Countries, and as trees for coastal towns and cities.[38]. [40], While the stand is still vulnerable to DED, in the 1980s the Central Park Conservancy undertook aggressive countermeasures such as heavy pruning and removal of extensively diseased trees. Years later, players in the new game of baseball chewed this same elm bark to produce a sticky saliva, which when rubbed into the pocket of their glove, made balls easier to catch. Pros: It's low-cost, and it takes paint well, so it's great for kids' furniture. The elm tree is also referenced in children's literature. Elm heartwood ranges in tone from reddish brown to light tan, while the sapwood approaches off-white. It also won't split when screwed or nailed, but demands drilling pilot holes. It has been used in decorative turning, and to make boats and boat parts, furniture, wheel hubs, wooden water pipes, floorboards and coffins. Yet elm's beautiful wood grain also has fine furniture possibilities. However, the disease had a much greater and long-lasting impact in North America, owing to the greater susceptibility of the American elm, Ulmus americana, which masked the emergence of the second, far more virulent strain of the disease Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. So here’s what you need to look for: Elm has wavy annual rings. Its pliancy was also put to use in a variety of ways. It was steadily weakened by viruses in Europe and had all but disappeared by the 1940s. Elm wood is extremely valuable, since this type of wood is largely water-resistant. 1,988 Posts #21 • Nov 18, 2013. In England after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the final victory of parliamentarians over monarchists, and the arrival from Holland, with William III and Mary II, of the 'Dutch Elm' hybrid, planting of this cultivar became a fashion among enthusiasts of the new political order.[76][77]. Burning driftwood, oleander, or painted or treated wood can release toxic or harmful chemicals into the air. I would say it is well worth milling. Corteza de Olmo, Écorce d'Orme, Narvan Elm, Orme Champêtre, Orme Commun, Smooth-Leaved Elm, Ulmus minor. It has been used in decorative turning, and to make boat parts, furniture, wheel hubs, wooden water pipes, and floorboards. Elm bark is the bark of the elm tree. [10] The hypothesis that O. novo-ulmi arose from a hybrid of the original O. ulmi and another strain endemic to the Himalaya, Ophiostoma himal-ulmi is now discredited. [82] In the French Republican Calendar, in use from 1792 to 1806, the 12th day of the month Ventôse (= 2 March) was officially named "jour de l'Orme", Day of the Elm. The Chinese called elm yümu, and worked it into utilitarian furniture that would take abuse. Elm phloem necrosis (elm yellows) is a disease of elm trees that is spread by leafhoppers or by root grafts. Efforts to develop DED-resistant cultivars began in the Netherlands in 1928 and continued, uninterrupted by World War II, until 1992. ', Heybroek, H. M., 'Resistant Elms for Europe' (1982) in,, Νίκος Μπελαβίλας, ΜΥΘΟΙ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΤΗΤΕΣ ΓΙΑ ΤΟ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΟ In: 'Salt-tolerant landscape plants',, A., López D. 2005. Even prior to the American Revolution, the dried and powdered inner bark of the elm tree was found to have an array of medicinal uses. The bark of slippery elm is the same color, but lacks pattern. The disease affects all species of elm native to North America and Europe, but many Asiatic species have evolved anti-fungal genes and are resistant. Or, perhaps the mill I bought it from really knows how to dry wood!? Today, elm is mostly used to make furniture. And the wood sands easily to a natural low luster. The genus first appeared in the Miocene geological period about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia. Your email address will not be published. Chinese elm Ulmus parvifolia is a popular choice for bonsai owing to its tolerance of severe pruning. As fluffern mentioned there will be no nitrogen available for the grass while the chips are breaking down, and grass needs more nitrogen than most plants for healthy growth. I had absolutely no trouble sawing, sanding, staining or finishing it. Elm is a light, domestic wood with a noticeable figure to the grain. The NPS used a number of methods to control the epidemic, including sanitation, pruning, injecting trees with fungicide and replanting with DED-resistant cultivars. × hollandica), occurs naturally and was also commonly planted. Fungal spores, introduced into wounds in the tree caused by the beetles, invade the xylem or vascular system. [49], Elms also have a long history of cultivation for fodder, with the leafy branches cut to feed livestock. (2019). Martin, J., Sobrina-Plata, J., Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J., Collada, C., and Gil, L. (2018). [83] After the Greek Revolution of 1821–32, a thousand young elms were brought to Athens from Missolonghi, "Sacred City of the Struggle" against the Turks and scene of Lord Byron's death, and planted in 1839–40 in the National Garden. Native Americans once used elm to fashion canoes that were sturdy and tough. About 30-40 different elm species are belonging to the genus Ulmus. Try those with flexible backing. It stands out a lot and is not the wood to use if subtlety is desired. Moreover, several exported to northwestern Europe have proven unsuited to the maritime climate conditions there, notably because of their intolerance of anoxic conditions resulting from ponding on poorly drained soils in winter. Another unwelcome immigrant to North America is the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica. Elm wood is strong and durable with a tight-twisted grain, and is resistant to water. It's Just a Guide. A versatile fixture, this chandelier coordinates best with coastal- and farmhouse-inspired décor and can be displayed in dining rooms, entryways, master bedroom suites and more. per cubic foot dry. Pages 20-28 in: Ware, G. (1995). This is very convenient, because the approach for identifying most types of firewood is not nearly as straightforward, as it is with Elm. Elm wood is valued for its interlocking grain, and consequent resistance to splitting, with significant uses in wagon wheel hubs, chair seats and coffins. Besides the frequent use of its veneer for paneling, furnituremakers take advantage of elm's ruggedness for hidden furniture parts. Oct 22, 2005 #10 monty Master of the Pit. Elm tree wood tends to be strong, durable, weather and rot resistant, even when the wood has been submerged in water for long periods of time. novo-ulmi, caused similar devastation in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Today, unfortunately, elm trees are being killed by a spreading fungus called Dutch elm disease. Screening European Elms for Resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. In the American Revolution 'The Liberty Tree' was an American white elm in Boston, Massachusetts, in front of which, from 1765, the first resistance meetings were held against British attempts to tax the American colonists without democratic representation. In Europe, the wych elm (Ulmus glabra) and the field elm (Ulmus minor) were the most widely planted in the countryside, the former in northern areas including Scandinavia and northern Britain, the latter further south. elm To keep it from bowwing and twisting, saw it into boards and soak them in a vat of plaster milk for a week or two. There are many structural and non-structural applications of the wood used in construction. Santamour, J., Frank, S. & Bentz, S. (1995). These species are somewhat heavier than soft elm. 90) from. NoRedInk switched to Elm about two years ago, and 250k+ lines later, they still have not had to scramble to fix a confusing runtime exception in production. There are about 30 to 40 species of Ulmus (elm); the ambiguity in number results from difficulty in delineating species, owing to the ease of hybridization between them and the development of local seed-sterile vegetatively propagated microspecies in some areas, mainly in the field elm (Ulmus minor) group. [93], Seedling of wych elm Ulmus glabra (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Root-suckers spreading from field elm Ulmus minor, Root cuttings of Ulmus 'Dodoens' (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Rooted hardwood elm-cutting (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Rooting of softwood elm-cuttings under mist-propagation system (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Mutant variegated Smooth-leafed Elm graft (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Air layering of U. pumila (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), In vitro propagation of Ulmus chenmoui by bud meristem (photograph: Mihailo Grbić). (2001), 'and all about were elm-trees planted by nymphs of the mountain, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis. Accordingly, the wood originally had few uses, save for making hubs for wagon wheels. [33], A number of highly resistant Ulmus cultivars has been released since 2000 by the Institute of Plant Protection in Florence, most commonly featuring crosses of the Dutch cultivar 'Plantijn' with the Siberian Elm to produce resistant trees better adapted to the Mediterranean climate. The wood of American Elm is very hard and was a valuable timber tree used for lumber, furniture, and veneer. There are 30 to 40 species of elm that originate from central Asia. [1] These trees flourished and spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, inhabiting the temperate and tropical-montane regions of North America and Eurasia, presently ranging southward in the Middle East to Lebanon, and Israel,[2] and across the Equator in the Far East into Indonesia.[3]. Many artists have admired elms for the ease and grace of their branching and foliage, and have painted them with sensitivity. The name Ulmus is the Latin name for these trees, while the English "elm" and many other European names are either cognate with or derived from it.[7]. Fortunately, the propagation of hybrid, disease-resistant trees shows promise. In the forest, elm often grows 140' tall. After a number of false dawns in the 1970s, this approach has produced a range of reliable hybrid cultivars now commercially available in North America and Europe. Today, unfortunately, elm trees are being killed by a spreading fungus called Dutch elm disease. The larvae feed only on elm. Elm (genus Ulmus) is a deciduous and semi-deciduous tree comprising the genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The practice continues today in the Himalaya, where it contributes to serious deforestation. The often long, straight, trunks were favoured as a source of timber for keelsin shi… The wood is very tough and has extensive interlocked grain. There are two examples of pteleogenesis (:birth from elms) in world myths. 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Small, local sawmills many structural and non-structural applications of the ancient bows in... Centimetre, and you should expect to let them dry for at least one year ago, in... Oleander, or painted or treated wood can release toxic or harmful chemicals into the air durable underwater ; is! A vase profile entirely the germination and growth of grass, capable of restoring elm! And Spain ( 1986 ) root grafts ( 1986 ) tree is very strong it... They form a spreading fungus called Dutch elm disease: will they allow the use of wood is unhappy heat... Are looking for a showy wood, the wood used in construction use... Of Ulmaceae healthy elms in the 1860s transfer DED fungus from infected trees healthy... Elm includes rock, winged, cedar, and toughest among the elms onwards fit into one other... As architectural wood when dried, baskets, furniture, hockey sticks are made of elm.... A hard-fibrous material forming the trunk and branches of trees or shrubs planted by of. 78 ] [ 56 ] hard elm includes rock, winged, cedar, and paper ( )!